The articles in this column are translated media articles from various Ukrainian sources. Often, these are based on press statements from the Ministry of Interior (MoI) or State Border Guard Service of Ukraine (SBGS). They are mere translations and published here for the purpose of documenting developments in Ukraine. Thus, the articles neither reflect the opinion of the Border Monitoring Project Ukraine nor does the BMP approve the statements made in these articles.
When receiving information from the local residents about appearance of unknown persons, the border guards of Lviv Detachment stopped two cars for inspection in the suburb of the village Shabelna. There were 9 persons inside the vehicle, including also those of Asian appearance. After documents check the border guards established that 5 persons were the citizens of Ukraine and other persons had no any documents and were probably the migrants from other countries. One of them was the citizen of Bangladesh, who had the Certificate on appeal for protection in Ukraine, three other men introduced themselves as the citizens of Sri Lanka. All detainees were delivered to the Border Department for clarification of all circumstances of the infringement. Administrative-procedural documents were prepared as to the foreigners. So far, their participation in unlawful activities connected with illegal transportation of persons through the state border is under establishment.
Border guards of the Separate check point “Kyiv” revealed a foreigner with the forged passport document of the citizen of another country. During check in of the passengers from the flight to Toronto the law enforcers revealed the citizen of Iraq presenting for check the passport of the citizen of Norway. In addition, in the course of further verification it was established that this document contained the signs of partial forgery, namely – the replacement of the page with constituent data. Currently, the foreigner expects for his return by a back flight.
The politics commenting on the issues of migration, mainly remember it in a negative context, it is written in the blog on the “New time” by the Deputy Executive Director of the Center for Economic Strategy Dmitryi Yablonovskii. But is it migration, especially labour one, only a “betrayal” and how to fight this “betrayal”?
The increase in labor mobility contributes to global economic development. This occurs because economic resources are used through migration more productively. However, for donor countries the effect of migration is not always positive. The labor force is one of the production factors. Its lack in a result of migration may inhibit the development of the economy. If the highly educated and highly skilled workers leave the country, it restrains technological development and implementation of innovations limiting a qualitative change in the structure of the economy.
According to the researches of the Center for Economic Strategy “How many Ukrainians have gone abroad and what the country should do about it”, migration in Ukraine has primarily a short-term, pendular character. According to our expert estimates, up to 4 million Ukrainians may be involved in labour migration, while at the same time outside of the country this figure may be up to 2.6-2.7 million Ukrainians.
The negative effects of short-term labour migration can involve: a decrease in consumer demand, reduce of the tax revenues and social contributions, wage inflation, social stratification of the society. But the positive effect includes – reduction in unemployment and poverty, the inflow of remittances, greater incentives to invest in education.
Migrants bring or transfer to Ukraine funds earned abroad annually, which comprises 7.6-8.4% of GDP. This amount exceeds the entire volume of foreign direct investment in our country. For example, in 2015-2017 years, this money helped to keep the surplus of the current account balance close to zero.
Among the negative consequences of migration there is a labor shortage, which becomes especially noticeable with the release out of the economy crisis. The labor migrants leave the country for higher wages. To compete with wages of the foreign employers and not to lose competitiveness the Ukrainian enterprises are forced to invest in increasing productivity.
The Ukrainians working abroad, as a rule, do not pay taxes on their income, but often receive subsidies and social benefits from the state. In 2015-2016 the transfers from the state accounted for 27% of total resources of the households, more than 40% of Ukrainian families receive subsidies. It can be assumed that part of these funds was received by the Ukrainians, who could not qualify for them, if the declared income earned abroad.
In the absence of reliable data it is difficult to accurately estimate the net impact of migration on the country’s economy. In our opinion, it is positive during the crisis, but can become a constraining factor for economic development in the long term perspective.
European experience shows: the countries just joining the EU have experienced large-scale emigration wave to the more developed EU countries. For example, the population of Latvia in the years of 2000 – 2017 was reduced by a quarter. According to the International Monetary Fund in different Eastern European countries the emigration “has cut” 0.6-0.9 GDP from the annual GDP growth in 1999-2014.
In order to avoid the negative impact of the migration on economic growth in the long term perspective, Ukraine needs investments to improve productivity. This will improve real wages within the country and make migration to be a less attractive alternative.
The border guards of BD “Shegeni” detained three citizens of India attempting to cross illegally the state border at night. The unknown persons were revealed by means of the infrared thermal imager, who were travelling in the outskirts of the village in the direction to the state border. According to the words of the detainees they were the citizens of India. The men had no any identifying documents. So far, the foreigners are detained in administrative order and appropriate protocols are prepared.
Information about three foreigners’ motion toward the border was reported to the officers of the BD “Shegeni” by the local residents. Not wasting time, the law enforcers started to the place of possible stay of the offenders. The persons intending to walk beyond the check point aiming to cross the Ukrainian-Polish border were detained. They were the citizens of India, two men and a woman, YOB 1989, 1996 and 1975.
The protocols as to the offenders were drawn up under the Part 2 Article 204-1 of Administrative Infringement Code of Ukraine “Illegal cross or attempt to cross illegally the state border of Ukraine”.
Currently, there is about one million Ukrainians work in Poland, however, only 300 ths persons are registered in the Pension System. People are sent from Ukraine as if on business trips. As soon as they receive a work permit there, they are discharged in Ukraine and are not insured at the place of work. A person paying no any insurance premium he/she does not have any record of service. If returning to Ukraine he/she does not have right for pension in neither country. Due to the labor migration process Ukraine faces a problem of experts’ lack. If this tendency continues we will have a complete staff shortage, even unqualified. 7 million citizens of Ukraine are involved in seasonal labor migration, in addition to that 3,2 mln work constantly abroad.
Before, it was reported that three fourth of Ukrainians working in Poland have jobs associated with physical work, and only 1% of Ukrainians in Poland posses the executive clerk positions.
State Border Guard Service of Ukraine continues to ramp up the potential of international cooperation for more efficient counteraction to the transborder delinquency in the European continent. Detection of a group of Ukrainians in cooperation with the law enforcers of Greece and Italy, who smuggled illegal migrants, is the next case of this cooperation.
Some months ago Ukrainian border guards received information about possible use of the Ukrainian yacht with three crew members in order to transport illegal migrants. This information was passed to the EUROPOL Bureau.
Meanwhile, the law enforcers of Greece and Italy confirmed that the mentioned group had actually been engaged in illegal business. The yacht first was noticed by the law enforcers in Greece under the flag of Ukraine, and in some days it was already in Italy. And in the last case – it was under the flag of Germany and under another name. Also, it was revealed that there was a large group of illegal migrants on the yacht board, whom the crew probably picked up on the way from Greece.
Currently, the EU law enforcers conduct emergent investigation actions.
At night, the officers of the BD “Palad-Komarivtsi””, Chop Detachment, stopped two attempts of crossing Ukrainian-Slovakian border. The border patrol, servicing close the populated area in Transcarpathian region, detected two unfamiliar persons by means of thermal imager. as the offenders were in a far way distance to reach them, the border guards had to inform their Slovakian colleagues. Due to operative cooperation, the law enforcers of both countries managed to stop two citizens of Pakistan in due time, who looking for better living conditions intended to get illegally to Europe. Soon, after some searches the border guards detained one more illegal migrant. The young man of Asian appearance walked in the direction of the border. The detainee had no any documents and introduced himself as a citizen of India. The offender was delivered to Border Guard Department to undergo filtration procedures and drawing up appropriate procedural documents. Detained Pakistani will be handed to Ukrainian side in order of readmission. Upon their identification the court will make decision on the destiny of three illegal migrants.
In the course of 5 months of 2018 – 4 194 illegal immigrants were found in Ukraine.
In January-May this year SMS registered 4194 illegal migrants who came to Ukraine, simultaneously in 2017 this figure was 9678 persons, in 2016 – 6 390 persons, in 2015 – 5 111, 2014 – 3 518.
“Since the beginning of the year 305 people applied for refugee status or to be recognized as a person who needs subsidiary protection. During the same period, this status was granted to 23 people”, – reported the Migration Service.
“In 2017, 771 persons applied for the recognition of the refugee or subsidiary protection, of them 95 received this status – 95; in 2016 – 656 applied persons and 71 – received; in 2015: out of 1 433 persons only 167 had their application satisfied; in 2014 – 1 173 applied, but 327 received,” – it was stated.
The citizens of Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, Algeria, Bangladesh, Belarus, Vietnam, Armenia, Guinea and Georgia often requested for refugee status or to be recognized as a person in need of subsidiary protection.
Sate border guard service of Ukraine continues counteracting the organized crime at the border. In order to prevent violations, all directions of the border are reinforced with reserves from the stocks of the detachments and regional departments, activity of operative and searching subdivisions is activated, cooperation with National Police and other law enforcers is arranged. Thus, processing received information about possible smuggling of the group of illegal migrants the border guards of Summy Detachment detained three trespassers. These were Pakistani citizens and two undocumented persons of Asian appearance being detained the border detail in the area of the international check point. Currently, the filtration actions are performed. The appropriate law enforcement agencies are informed on the case. The border guards do a complex of actions to identify the circle of persons involved in illegal transportation of persons through the state border of Ukraine.