Transcarpathian region is characterized by the highest level of population’s participation in labour migrations among other regions of Ukraine.
The principle directions of labour trips are Czech Republic,Hungary and Slovakia.
First of all, it is stipulated by the geographical closeness, secondly – by ethnic peculiarities of the region (the basic part of Ukrainian Hungarians and Slovaks reside here), thirdly – by historic connections (Transcarpathia was in composition of Hungary and Slovakia in different times). The level of orientation on CIS countries (in the first place – Russian Federation) is sufficiently lower, but it is higher than in eastern and southern regions utterly located in the bounds of Western Ukraine.
Relation between urban and rural population in Ukraine comprises 68 to 32, so among labour migrants – 54 to 46. The most “urban” is migration to “other” countries and the most “rural” is to Czechia.
In all countries migrants from west of Ukraine are the leaders: from 38% to Russia up to 100% in Hungary. On the whole almost 13% of employable population in western region are labour migrants. Truly, the differences are big there: not less than 20% in Transcarpathia and hardly more than 10% in Volyn. In Russia, Czechia and Hungary the lion’s share of labour migrants is occupied in building, inItaly– domestic economy. In Poland and Spain the basic specialization is farming.
Italy and Spain are notable for average income. Concerning the low index of earnings Poland can be pointed out, which is easily explained by unqualified work in farming. But how to explain the low index of income in Hungary, where the principal employment is in building? As to the low index in Russia(the average Russian salary for that moment) is explained by high part of employed persons in building and qualified works.
According to the status the following countries are distinguished – Czechia, Portugal and Spain, where the biggest half of migrants has residence and working permission, Russia and Hungary, where the majority of migrants have temporary registration. The biggest part of migrants in Poland work without official status.